Implications in Different Employment Contracts

In UK law there are many rights and obligations associated with employees. To know about these rights, first of all we have to look up the definition of employee.”An individual who has entered into, or works under contract of employment” (ERA 1996)The contract of employment may be made written or orally. It is important to differentiate between employment and self employment. Each type of contract has different implications regarding taxation, healthcare and protection laws. Two basic tests have to be performed to check whether it is employment or self employment.These are mentioned below.Control Test:The court will consider whether the employer has control over the way in which the employee performs the duties. If employer has control then it will be the contract of service (employment).IntegrationIf employee is so skilled that he cannot be controlled in the performance of his duties then it will fall into the contract for service (self-employment). The distinction between employed and self employed is very essential because certain rights and obligations arise in each case.So implications are mentioned below:TaxationThere are number of deductions can be made by an employer for income tax under PAYE from salary of employee. But self employed person is directly responsible to the HM revenue and customs for tax due.Protection:There is legislation for the protection and rights of employee including minimum period of notice and remedies for unfair dismissal. As there is no employment contract in contract for service, so self employed person is not entitled for these rights.VATEmployees do not have to get register for VAT but self employed has to be registered for VAT if he meets the criteria for compulsory registration for VAT.BankruptcyEmployees are the preferential creditors of the company in the case of liquidation or bankruptcy. Contractors or self employed persons are treated as non preferential creditors if employer is liquidated.

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Health Supplements vs Pharmaceuticals

Medicine-whether in the form of health supplements or pharmaceuticals-is big business indeed. With profit margins that are nearly four times the average of any other business, the pharmaceutical industry enjoys a top position being amongst the most profitable businesses in the world.The nutraceutical industry is not far behind offering stiff competition to pharmaceutical counterparts. Research is booming and science-based studies have given successful impetus to the plant-based health supplement industry. Some of the more popular botanicals like as Echinacea, gingko biloba, ginseng, garlic, and St. John’s Wort are seeing sales that put them in the same league with many prescription drugs. In fact, so popular is the health supplement industry that pharmaceutical giants like Bayer, American Home Products, Johnson and Johnson and Boeheringer-Ingelheim have all begun to sell supplements!What is the Difference?There is not much of a difference between nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals except for the way in which they are regulated in the United States although both are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drugs Administration. Major differences include:* Pharmaceuticals that are derived from plant proteins for vaccines and medical treatments are not the same as nutraceuticals. The major difference is that pharmaceuticals are designed specifically for medical use under a physician’s supervision, and are subject to Food And Drugs Administration approval.
Health supplements do not need medical supervision, nor Food And Drugs Administration approval.
* Pharmaceuticals need prescription from a certified doctor for purchase. The choice of a health supplements is up to the individual. Health supplements are sold without restrictions at health food stores, grocery stores, drug stores, national discount chains, mail-order and Internet.
* There are no strict regulating laws governing health supplements. Just about anyone can put together a health supplement, notify the Food And Drugs Administration , and put it in the market. In stark contrast, it takes anywhere between 8-12 years for a new drug to be approved by the Food And Drugs Administration . Pharmaceuticals undergo intense regulatory reviews by the Food And Drugs Administration .
* Because of stricter regulations, pharmaceuticals have greater evidence of efficacy and safety. Whereas health supplements are based on tradition with insufficient evidence of safety and efficacy. However, this is changing as new research builds up to support the health benefits of some of the accepted nutrients. Eg omega 3 fatty acids.
* Pharmaceuticals are patented. Herbs and health supplements are not patented and therefore the profits are limited with stiff competition from all kinds of health supplement manufacturers.
* Pharmaceuticals spend millions of dollars for research and paperwork for a new therapeutic claim of an established drug all to satisfy Food And Drugs Administration requirements. Food And Drugs Administration requirements for health supplements are not at all stringent apart from barring them from making any false health claims about their product and adding a disclaimer: “This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.”
* Pharmaceuticals come with various side effects. Known side effects are required to be disclosed on the label. While health supplements do not require a listing of side effects, there tends to be fewer cases of side effects associated with the use of health supplements.Complaining about the high cost of traditional medicine and side effects, many people are turning to alternative medicine in the form of health supplements. A report by the Hartman Group, a leading market research firm called, “The Wellness Trends in 2002″ found that Americans are beginning to place the family and good health above the daily routines of life. Among those interviewed many expressed frustration with U.S. healthcare system and wanted more control over their own health. The report said, “Dietary supplements … (allow) them a way of self-managing their own health … giving them a sense of empowerment,” the report states. This is an advantage over pharmaceuticals.According to the Nutrition Business Journal fast growth in the nutraceutical market is seen in weight-loss products.The demand for such products is growing as you consider the more than 120 million overweight Americans and 17 million diabetics who are looking for supplements that increase metabolism, suppress or satiate appetite, and control blood sugar. Such sectors in the health supplement industry have gained footage over pharmaceuticals.In America, 60% of the consumers take some kind of food supplement and 30 to 40% take herbal supplements. Health supplements are gaining such credibility that many physicians are recommending them to their patients before prescribing riskier pharmaceuticals. Of the health supplement users 95% are satisfied with supplements.In the meanwhile, research is still booming in both industries! Health supplement manufacturers continue to unveil groundbreaking products as new evidence supporting the health benefits of nutraceuticals emerges.

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Replace Your Files With an Electronic Health Diary

Empty your cupboards; full of pages containing all your health information and files where you have stored all your health records. In long future, no more files will be used to store health records. In this computer age it will be shared electronically so no more files no more data no more pages- all in one. Store all your health information in an electronic health diary which is a secure as well as private means of recording all your health record. This will serve as a storehouse where all your health information is shared electronically to support health care decisions by caregivers. An Electronic Health Record (EHR) provides us with a secure and lifetime record of our health history. You can make this record available electronically to authorized health care providers and individual anywhere, anytime, in support of high-quality care. This helped a lot to health caregivers also to provide you the better service in future. This will bring a new era in the history of health service, a patient friendly system will exist.All government hospitals, pharmacies, health institutions and other healthcare groups will share a private network that will aid in EHR development. A free software should be used to enable the doctors, pharmacies and labs to securely share and exchange data across the Internet world. A centralized electronic authorized registry system will help us to share our health data with health service providers. Another electronic data exchange should exist between different health information systems covering areas such as admission, discharge, transfer information, order entry and results reporting, scheduling and other referrals. You can keep a good track of your health by taking small steps and thereby can minimize your health risks.This health system must be capable of supporting many different patient and healthcare provider’s relationships. A long term relationship will establish in this way. Your family doctor will get a better understanding of your health history. Not only this if you have to visit your nearby or any hospital for undergoing a specific treatment every year or month, then a track your health history will get stored in the electronic patient record that every hospitals are using nowadays. You can also maintain your health records longitudinally that is typically in a form of a paper and this will contain information provided by the doctor or other external health sources such as laboratory, specialists, hospitals etc. An alert or reminder can also be set as for example in hospitals patient alert are created regarding patient’s allergies, immunizations, family history, current medications, any specific disease like diabetes etc. So don’t waste your time more on keeping records in files and then maintaining those files just change your habits and start regulating all your health record in an electronic health diary.

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